According to Norris and her colleagues (2008), “individuals invest, access, and use resources embedded in social networks to gain returns” (p. 137). For our purposes, social/cultural capital incorporates several subcategories, including education service, child and elderly services, cultural and heritage services, and community participation. Social/cultural capital is prerequisite to community competence (Norris et al., 2008) in that it incorporates the array of services that the community has chosen to provide for itself, understanding that community health requires more than good jobs and infrastructure. It also includes several intangible “goods,” such as social support, sense of community, place attachment, and citizen participation (Norris et al. 2008).

What do we measure

  • Community services
  • Social support
  • Citizen participation
  • Place attachment


  • Public
  • Educational service
  • Child and elderly services
  • Cultural and heritage services

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