The initial project was funded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8603 under the grant 60NANB9D9155.

The first report in 2010 was prepared for Robert E. Chapman, Chief Office of Applied Economics Engineering Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8603.

Project Report:

Renschler, C.S., Frazier, A.E., Arendt, L.A., Cimellaro, G.P., Reinhorn, A.M. and Bruneau, M. (2010).  A Framework for Defining and Measuring Resilience at the Community Scale: The PEOPLES Resilience Framework, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Office of Applied Economics Engineering Laboratory, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8603, Report NIST GCR 10-930.

Peer-reviewed Conference Paper:

Renschler, C.S., Frazier, A.E., Arendt, L.A., Cimellaro, G.P., Reinhorn, A.M. and Bruneau, M. (2010). Developing the ‘PEOPLES’ Resilience Framework for Defining and Measuring Disaster Resilience at the Community Scale, Proceedings of the 9th U.S. National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, July 25-29, 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Paper No 1827.

List of References Cited (throughout this Website)

Adger, W. N. (2000). Social and Ecological Resilience: Are They Related? Progress in Human Geography 24 (3):347-364.

Bruneau, M., Chang, S., Eguchi, R., Lee, G., O’Rourke, T., Reinhorn, A. M., Shinozuka, M., Tierney, K., Wallace, W., and Winterfeldt, D. (2003). A Framework to Quantitatively Assess and Enhance the Seismic Resilience of Communities. Earthquake Spectra, 19(4), 733-752.

Cutter, S. L. (1996). Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards. Progress in Human Geography 20(4):529–39.

Elmqvist, T., Folke, C., Nystrom, M., Peterson, G., Bengtsson, J., Walker, B. and Norberg, J.  (2003).  Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1(9), 488-494.

Gunderson, L. (2000). Ecological resilience – In theory and application. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 425-439.

Ludwig, D., B.H. Walker, and C.S. Holling. (2002). Models and Metaphors of Sustainability, Stability, and Resilience. In Resilience and the Behavior of Large-Scale Systems, edited by L. H. Gunderson, L. Pritchard, International Council of Scientific Unions. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

Norris, F. H., Stevens, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. F., and Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). “Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness.” American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(1-2), 127-150.

Schwartz, D. (2010). A big question: Where is Haiti’s government? Retrieved March 1, 2010 from: 

Tierney, K. (2009). Disaster response: Research findings and their implications for resilience measures. CARRI Research Report 6. Oak Ridge, TN: Community and Regional Resilience Initiative (CARRI). URL:

Environmental / Ecosystems