Within the category of facilities, we include housing, commercial facilities, and cultural facilities. Within the category of lifelines, we include food supply, health care, utilities, transportation, and communication networks. Lifelines are those essential utility and transportation systems that serve communities across all jurisdictions and locales. Lifelines are thus components of the nation’s critical infrastructure, which also includes medical, financial, and other infrastructure systems that create the fabric of modern society. For clarity, lifeline infrastructures are simply called in short lifelines in this report. Lifelines include: (a) energy utilities and companies (electric power and natural gas and liquid fuel pipelines); (b) transportation systems (roads and highways, railroads, airports, and seaports); (c) water, storm-water, and sewerage; (d) communication systems; and (e) health care facilities (hospitals, cliniques, emergency facilities, etc), most distributed in well linked networks.In terms of housing, key indicators may include proportion of housing stock not rated as substandard or hazardous and vacancy rates for rental housing (Tierney, 2009). In terms of communication networks, key indicators may include adequacy (or sufficiency) of procedures for communicating with the public and addressing the public’s need for accurate information following disasters, adequacy of linkages between official and unofficial information sources, and adequacy of ties between emergency management entities and mass media serving diverse populations (Tierney, 2009).What do we measure
- Facilities – housing, commercial facilities, and cultural facilities
- Lifelines – food supply, health care, utilities, transportation, and communication networks
- Local, state, federal government
- Business owners
- National guards, army corps of engineers
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